Research Articles | Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters

Modelling Compressive Strength of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Using Neural Networks and Regression

Neela Deshpande, Shreenivas Londhe


Recycled aggregates are used in concrete and is called as Recycled Aggregate Concrete (RAC). This paper aims at predicting the 28 day compressive strength of RAC using two techniques namely Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Non-linear regression (NLR). Five ANN and NLR models were developed with input parameters as  per cubic proportions of cement, sand, natural coarse aggregate, recycled coarse aggregate, water , admixtures  used in the mix designs and non-dimensional parameters sand aggregate ratio, water to total materials ratio and the replacement ratio of recycled coarse aggregates to natural aggregates(by volume) in concrete. The effects of each parameter on networks in both techniques were studied. Comparing the techniques shows that ANN performs better than NLR equations. With limited amount of input parameters also, ANN1 predicted the strength of RAC better as compared to NLR1. The performance of ANN models and NLR models improved with the use of non-dimensional parameters.


recycled concrete aggregates; artificial neural networks; non-linear regression; 28 days compressive strength; input parameters and non-dimensional parameters

Full Text:



Rao, M.C., Bhattacharyya, S.K., and Barai, S.V., Influence of field recycled coarse aggregate on properties of concrete. Materials and Structures, 2010, 44 (1), pp 205-220.

Ajdukiewiez, A. and Kliszczewicz, A., Influence of recycled aggregates on mechanical properties of HS/HPC. Cement and Concrete Composites, 2002, 24, pp 269-279.

Khatib, J.M, Properties of concrete incorporating fine recycled aggregate. Cement Concrete Research, 2005, 35(4), pp 763-769.

Hansen, T.C. and Narud H., Strength of recycled concrete made from crushed concrete coarse aggregate. Concrete International design and construction, 1983, 5(1), pp 79-83.

Tsung, Y., Yuen, Y. C. and Chao, L.H., Properties of HPC with recycled aggregates. Cement and Concrete research, 2006, 36, pp 943-950.

Ryu, J.S., An experimental study on the effect of recycled aggregate on concrete properties. Magazine of concrete research, 2002, 54(1), pp 7-12.

Padmini, A.K., Ramamurthy, K. and Matthews, M.S., Relative moisture movement through recycled aggregate concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 2003, 54(5 pp 377-384.

Amnon, Katz, Properties of concrete made with recycled aggregate made from partially hydrated old concrete. Cement and concrete research, 2003, 33, pp 703-711.

Vivian, W. Y. Tam, Wang, K. and Tam C.M., Assessing relationships among properties of demolished concrete recycled aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete using regression analysis. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2008, 152, pp 703-714.

Zain, M.F.N. and Abd, S.M., Multiple regression model for compressive strength prediction of High performance concrete. Journal of applied sciences, 2009, 9(1), pp 155-160.

Hong, G. N. and Ji-Zong W., Prediction of compressive strength of concrete by neural networks. Cement Concrete Research, 2000, 30, pp 1245–50.

Dias, W.P.S. and Pooliyadda S.P., Neural networks for predicting properties of concretes with admixtures. Construction and Building Materials, 2001, 15, pp 371-379.

I-Cheng Y., Modeling slump flow of concrete using second-order regressions and artificial neural networks. Cement & Concrete Composites, 2007, 29, pp 474–480.

Adriana, T.A.D., Monica, B. L. and Koji de, J.N., Prediction of compressive strength of concrete containing construction and demolition waste using artificial neural networks. Construction and building materials, 2013, 38, pp 717-722.

M.S.Shetty, (2005), Concrete Technology, 17th edition. New Delhi: S. Chand and Company.

Zongjin Li, (2011), Advanced Concrete Technology. 1st edition, New Jersy, John Wiley and sons Inc.

Doo, K.K, Jong, J. L., Jong, H. L. and Seong, K. C., Application of Probabilistic Neural Networks for Prediction of Concrete Strength. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2005, 17(3), pp 353–362.

Londhe, S.N., Towards predicting water levels using artificial neural networks, Oceans 2009, 11-14 May 2009,2009, Europe, IEEE Xplore, pp 1-6.

David, R. L. and Gregory, J. McCabe Jr., Evaluating the use of “goodness of fit” measures in hydrological and hydro climatic model validation. Water Resources Research, 1999, 35(1), pp 233-241.

Jain, A., Kumar Jha, S. and Misra, S., Modeling and Analysis of concrete slump using Artificial Neural Networks. Journal of materials in civil engineering, 2008, 20 (9), pp 628-633.

Dapena E, Alaejos P., Lobet P. and Pérez D., Effect of Recycled Sand Content on Characteristics of Mortars and Concretes. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2011, 23(4), pp 414-422.

Valeria, C., Mechanical and elastic behavior of concretes made of recycled-concrete coarse aggregates. Construction and Building Materials, 2010, 24, pp 1616–1620.

Fathifazl , G., Abbas , A., Razaqpur , A.G.,Isgor O.B , Fournier B. and Foo S., New mixture proportioning method for concrete made with coarse recycled concrete aggregate. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2009, 21(10), pp 601-611.

Yong, P.C and Teo, D.C.L., Utilization of Recycled aggregate as coarse aggregate in concrete. UNIMAS-E Journal of Civil Engineering, 2009, 1(1), pp 1-6.

Hasbi, Y., Huseyin, Y. A., Ilhami, D., Osman, S. and Gokhan, D., Effects of the fine recycled concrete aggregates on the concrete properties. International Journal of the Physical Sciences, 2011, 6 (10), pp 2455-2461.

Brett, M.S., Shrinkage and modulus of elasticity in concrete with recycled aggregates. Thesis (MSEE), 2011, California Polytechnic State University.

Kumutha, R. and Vijai, K., Strength of concrete incorporating aggregates recycled from demolition waste. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2010, 5(5), pp 64-71.

Evangelista L. and Brito, Durability performance of concrete made with fine recycled concrete aggregates. Cement & Concrete Composites, 2010, 32, pp 9–14.

Claudio, J. Z. and Angel Antonio, D. M., Recycled concrete made with different natural coarse aggregates exposed to high temperature. Construction and Building Materials, 2003, 23, pp 2047–2052.

Kou Shi Cong, Reusing recycled aggregates in structural concrete. Thesis (PhD), 2006, The Hong Kong Polythenic University.

Athanas , K. and David, M.K., Influence of cement content on Recycled aggregates concrete properties. Modern Applied Science, 2011, 5(1), pp 23-31.

Poon , C.S., Shui , Z.H., Lam L., Fok, H. and Kou ,S.C., Influence of moisture states of natural and recycled aggregates on the slump and compressive strength of concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 2004, 34, pp 31–36.

Duangthidar, K., Recycled Aggregate concrete for structural applications, Thesis (Ph.D), 2010, University of Western Sydney.

Suraya, H. A., Ismail, A.R. and Hamidah, M. S., Recycled aggregate as coarse aggregate replacement in concrete mixes. ASEAN Australian Engineering Congress 2011, 25-27 July 2011, 2011, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia.[35] Domingo, C. A., Lázaro, C., López , G. F., Serrano ,M.A., Serna , P. and Castaño Tabares , J.O., Creep and shrinkage of recycled aggregate concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 2009, 23, pp 2545–2553.

Pereira , P., Evangelista, L. and Brito,, The effect of super plasticisers on the workability and compressive strength of concrete made with fine recycled concrete aggregates. Construction and Building Materials, 2012, 28, pp 722–729.

Agarwal, S.D., Karnnkal, A.B. and Patil, P.N., Feasibility study of use of RCA in concrete. International Journal of Research in Engineering sciences and technology,2011, SP-II, pp 70-75.

Luís, R. E., Jorge , C. and Brito,de., Criteria for the use of fine recycled concrete aggregates in concrete production. International RILEM conference on Use of Recycled building materials in building and structures, 8-11 Nov 2004 ,2004, Barcelona, Spain, RILEM Publications s.a.r.l

Arlindo, G., Ana, E. and Manuel, V., Influence of recycled concrete aggregates on concrete durability. International RILEM conference on Use of Recycled building materials in building and structures, 8-11 Nov 2004,2004,Barcelona, Spain, RILEM Publications s.a.r.l,554-562


  • There are currently no refbacks.