Research Articles | Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics

Evaluating effects of granulated glass on structural and seismic behavior of tall RC structures using experimental tests and 3D modeling

Memduh Karalar, Murat Çavuşlu



The use of waste materials for reinforcement of reinforced concrete (RC) structures is of great importance for both environmental cleaning and recycling. In this study, the effects of granulated glass released by factories on the structural behavior of RC structures are examined in detail. Initially, 5 different concretes are produced using 5 different granulated glass percentages. Granulated glass is used instead of aggregate. Different aggregate ratios of granulated glass are taken into account for each sample. 5 different concrete samples are subjected to the slump test and the consistency of the concrete samples is assessed in detail. Then, each concrete sample is subjected to compressive strength tests. It is clearly seen from the compressive strength tests that granulated glass increased the strength of the concrete noticeably. Then, the 31-story reinforced concrete structure is modeled considering the most critical granulated glass ratio. The 1995 Kobe earthquake is utilized for the seismic analyses. Firstly, the RC structure is analyzed for the pure concrete and then, analyses are performed for various granulated glass added cases. According to the analysis results, granulated glass significantly increased the earthquake resistance of reinforced concrete structures. Furthermore, waste granulated glass caused enormous reductions in the weight of the structure. In this study, it is concluded that granulated glass material, which is found in nature as waste, can be used for the construction of RC structures.


compressive stress; finite element modeling; granulated glass; reinforced concrete structure; slump test

Full Text:



Boukendakdji O, Kenai S, Kadri EH, Rouis F (2009). Effect of slag on the rheology of fresh self-compacted concrete. Construction and Build-ing Materials, 23, 2593-2598.

Dash MK, Patro SK (2018). Effects of water cooled ferrochrome slag as fine aggregate on the properties of concrete. Construction and Build-ing Materials, 177, 457-466.

El-Sayed TA (2019). Flexural behavior of RC beams containing recycled industrial wastes as steel fibers. Construction and Building Materi-als, 212, 27-38.

El-Sayed TA (2021). Performance of porous slabs using recycled ash. Polymers, 13, 3319.

El-Sayed TA, Shaheen YBI (2020). Flexural performance of recycled wheat straw ash-based geopolymer RC beams and containing recy-cled steel fiber. Structures, 28, 1713-1728.

El-Sayed TA, Erfan AM, El-Naby RMA (2019a). Recycled rice & wheat straw ash as cement replacement materials. Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, 5, 1-9.

El-Sayed TA, Erfan AM, El-Naby RMA (2019b). Flexural behavior of RC beams by using agricultural waste as a cement reinforcement mate-rials. Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, 7, 1-12.

Frazão C, Díaz B, Barros J, Bogas JA, Toptan F (2019). An experimental study on the corrosion susceptibility of recycled steel fiber rein-forced concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites, 96, 138-153.

Güneyisi E, Atewi YR, Hasan MF (2019). Fresh and rheological proper-ties of glass fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete with nanosili-ca and fly ash blended. Construction and Building Materials, 211, 349-362.

Lynn CJ, Dhir RK, Ghataora GS, West RP (2015). Sewage sludge ash characteristics and potential for use in concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 98, 767-779.

Mohajerani A, Vajna J, Cheung THH, Kurmus H, Arulrajah A, Horpibulsuk S (2017). Practical recycling applications of crushed waste glass in construction materials: A review. Construction and Building Mate-rials, 156, 443-467.

Nanda RP, Mohapatra AK, Behera B (2020). Influence of metakaolin and Recron 3s fiber on mechanical properties of fly ash replaced con-crete. Construction and Building Materials, 263, 120949.

Ramdani S, Guettala A, Benmalek ML, Aguiar JB (2019). Physical and mechanical performance of concrete made with waste rubber aggre-gate, glass powder and silica sand powder. Journal of Building Engi-neering, 21, 302-311.

Refai AE, Abed F, Al-Rahmani A (2015). Structural performance and serviceability of concrete beams reinforced with hybrid (GFRP and steel) bars. Construction and Building Materials, 96, 518-529.

SAP2000. (2008). Integrated Finite Elements Analysis and Design of Structures. Computers and Structures, Inc., Berkeley, CA, USA.

Shen D, Li M, Kang J, Liu C, Li C (2021a). Experimental studies on the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete beam-column joints strengthened with basalt fiber-reinforced polymer sheets. Construc-tion and Building Materials, 287, 122901.

Shen X, Chen W, Li B, Hancock CM, Xu Y (2021b). Flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams using fabric reinforced alkali-activated slag matrix. Journal of Building Engineering, 33, 101865.

Tamburini S, Natali M, Garbin E, Panizza M, Favaro M, Valluzzi MR (2017). Geopolymer matrix for fibre reinforced composites aimed at strengthening masonry structures. Construction and Building Mate-rials, 141, 542-552.

Tang Z, Li W, Tam VWY, Luo Z (2020). Investigation on dynamic me-chanical properties of fly ash/slag-based geopolymeric recycled ag-gregate concrete. Composites Part B: Engineering, 185, 107776.

Thorneycroft J, Orr J, Savoikar P, Ball RJ (2018). Performance of struc-tural concrete with recycled plastic waste as a partial replacement for sand. Construction and Building Materials, 161, 63-69.

Uzun M, Çöğürcü MT, Keskin ÜS (2018). Effect of glass powder on concrete compressive strength. Beykent University Journal of Sci-ence and Engineering, 11(2), 42-51.

Wu M, Hu X, Zhang Q, Cheng W, Xue D, Zhao Y (2020). Application of bacterial spores coated by a green inorganic cementitious material for the self-healing of concrete cracks. Cement and Concrete Compo-sites, 113, 103718.

Younis KH, Pilakoutas K (2013). Strength prediction model and methods for improving recycled aggregate concrete. Construction and Build-ing Materials, 49, 88-701.

Xie J, Fang C, Lu Z, Li Z, Li L (2018). Effects of the addition of silica fume and rubber particles on the compressive behaviour of recycled ag-gregate concrete with steel fibres. Journal of Cleaner Production, 197, 656-667.

Zhang Q, Xiao J, Zhang P, Zhang K (2019). Mechanical behaviour of seawater sea-sand recycled coarse aggregate concrete columns under axial compressive loading. Construction and Building Materials, 229, 117050.


  • There are currently no refbacks.