Research Articles | Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics

Model updating of a reduced-scaled masonry bridge by using response surface method

Emre Alpaslan, Zeki Karaca



Historical structures reflect the historical and cultural properties of countries and also contributes to the economy in terms of cultural tourism. Therefore, it is important to understand the structural behavior of these kinds of structures under dynamics loads such as earthquakes, etc. to protect and transfer them safely to future generations. For this reason, this study aims to investigate the dynamic behavior of a reduced-scale one-span masonry arch bridge constructed in laboratory conditions by performing experimental and numerical analysis. Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) Technique was performed under ambient vibrations for experimental study to determine modal parameters of the reduced-scaled bridge model. Sensitive three-axial accelerometers were located on critical points on the bridge span and signals originated by accelerometers were collected to quantify the vibratory response of the scale bridge model. The experimental natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios resulting from these measurements were figured out by using Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition (EFDD) technique. ANSYS software was utilized to carry out 3D finite element (FE) modeling of the reduced-scale masonry bridge and determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the bridge numerically. Experimental results were compared with FE analysis results of the bridge. Significant differences appeared when comparing the results of the experimental and numerical with the initial conditions. Therefore, the finite element model is calibrated by using the response surface (RS) method according to the experimental results to minimize the uncertain finite element modeling parameters of the reduced-scale bridge model such as material properties.


response surface method; modal calibration; finite element model; operational modal analysis; reduced-scale model

Full Text:



Alpaslan E (2019). Damage Detection of Historical Masonry Bridges with Analytical Model and Experimental Techniques. Ph.D thesis, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey.

ANSYS Workbench (2013). Version 15. Ansys Incorporation, Pennsylvania, USA.

ARTeMIS Modal 1.5. (2012). Structural Vibration Solution, Denmark.

Bendat JS, Piersol AG (2010). Random Data : Analysis and Measurement Procedures. John Wiley and Sonsi Inc., New York.

Box GEP, Draper NR (1987). Empirical Model-Building and Response Surfaces. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.

Brencic A, Sabia D (2008). Experimental identification of a multi-span masonry bridge: The Tanaro Bridge. Construction and Building Materials, 22(10), 2087-2099.

Brincker R, Zhang L (2009). Frequency domain decomposition revisited. Proceedings of the 3rd International Operational Modal Analysis Conference, Portonovo, Italy, 615-626.

Casciati S (2010). Response surface models to detect and localize distributed cracks in a complex continuum. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 136(9), 1131-1142.

Cheng J, Zhang J, Cai CS, Xiao RC (2007). A new approach for solving inverse reliability problems with implicit response functions. Engineering Structures, 29(1), 71-79.

Deng L, Cai CS (2010). Bridge model updating using response surface method. Earth and Space 2010: Engineering, Science, Construction and Operations in Challenging Environments, 2311-2320.

Deshan S, Qiao L, Inamullah K, Xiaohang Z (2015). A novel finite element model updating method based on substructure and response surface model. Engineering Structures, 103, 147-156.

Diaferio M, Foti D, Mongelli M, Giannoccaro NI (2011). Dynamic behavior of a historic tower in Bari. Civil Engineering Topics, 4, 335-342.

Fang S (2020). Damage detection of long-span bridge structures based on the response surface model. Thermal Science, OnLine-First, 1-9.

Fang SE, Perera R (2009). A response surface methodology based damage identification technique. Smart Material and Structures, 18(6), 065009.

Fang SE, Perera R (2011). Damage identification by response surface-based model updating using D-optimal design. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 25(2), 717-733.

Foti D, Chorro SI, Sabba MF (2012). Dynamic investigation of an ancient masonry bell tower with Operational Modal Analysis - A non-destructive experimental technique to obtain the dynamic characteristics of a structure. The Open Construction and Building Technology Journal, 6, 384-391.

Gentile C, Gallino N (2008). Ambient vibration testing and structural evaluation of a historic suspension Footbridge. Advances in Engineering Software, 39(4), 356-366.

Gentile C, Saisi A, Cabboi A (2015). Structural identification of a masonry tower based on Operational Modal Analysis. International Journal of Architectural Heritage, 9(2), 98-110.

Hacıefendioğlu K, Başağa HB, Banerjee S (2017). Probabilistic analysis of historic masonry bridges to random ground motion by Monte Carlo simulation using response surface method. Construction and Building Materials, 134, 199-209.

Landman D, Simpson J, Vicroy D, Parker P (2007). Response surface methods for efficient complex aircraft configuration aerodynamic characterization. Journal of Aircraft, 44(4), 1189-1195.

Ocak İ (2009). Prediction of intact rock’s elasticity modulus based on uniaxial compressive strength. Istanbul Earth Science Review, 21, 91-97.

Oliveira CS, Çaktı E, Stengel D, Brancol M (2012). Minaret behavior under earthquake loading: The case of historical Istanbul. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 41(1), 19-39.

Ren WX, Chen HB (2010). Finite element model updating in structural dynamics by using the response surface method. Engineering structures, 32(8), 2455-2465.

Umar SB (2015). Response Surface Methodology for Damage Detectıon Using Frequency and Mode Shapes. M.Sc thesis, University of Technology, Malaysia.

Worden K, Cross EJ (2018). On switching response surface models, with applications to the structural health monitoring of bridges. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 98, 139-156.

Zong Z, Lin X, Niu J (2015). Finite element model validation of bridge based on structural health monitoring-Part I: Response surface-based finite element model updating. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition), 2(4), 258-278.


  • There are currently no refbacks.