Research Articles | Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters

Reinforcement of concrete beams using waste carbon-nanoclay-fiberglass laminate pieces

Zinnur Çelik, Emrah Turan, Meral Oltulu, Gülşah Öner

View Counter: Abstract | 82 times |, Full Article | 14 times |


In the last few decades, strengthening of structures in need of repair with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials produced with different fiber types has gained great importance. Within the scope of this experimental study, the usability of hybrid glass and carbon composite laminates produced for different purposes and later cut into waste was investigated for concrete reinforcement. Hybrid composite laminates were produced in the form of glass-carbon-glass and carbon-glass-carbon, and the effect was investigated in two different sequences in the study. In addition, there are 3 different rates of nanoclay (0.50%, 0.75% and 1.25%) in the production of composite materials, and the effect of nanoclay ratio was investigated. In the study, two different numbers of composite laminates were adhered to the concrete samples produced in 70x70x280 mm dimensions and subjected to flexural strength test. In the Carbon-Glass-Carbon series using triple waste laminate pieces, the highest flexural strength was reported in the CGC-0.75-3 series, which achieved an increase of approximately 55% and 42% compared to the Control and Control-E series. It was determined that the effectiveness of the reinforcement technique of concrete with laminates in flexure did not change significantly depending on the number of laminate pieces. The main mode of failure in the experimental work was due to concrete fracture.


waste laminate; carbon-glass-carbon; glass-carbon-glass; flexural strength; retrofitting

Full Text:



Amin MN, Salami BA, Zahid M, Iqbal M, Khan K, Abu-Arab AM, Alabdullah AA, Jalal FE (2022a). Investigating the bond strength of FRP laminates with concrete using LIGHT GBM and SHAPASH analysis. Polymers, 14(21), 4717.

Amin MN, Iqbal M, Jamal A, Ullah S, Khan K, Abu-Arab AM, Al-Ahmad QMS, Khan S (2022b). Gep tree-based prediction model for interfacial bond strength of externally bonded FRP laminates on grooves with concrete prism. Polymers, 14(10), 2016.

Ascione L, Feo L (2000). Modeling of composite/concrete interface of RC beams strengthened with composite laminates. Composites Part B: Engineering, 31(6-7), 535-540.

Askar MK, Hassan AF, Al-Kamaki YSS (2022). Flexural and shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams using FRP composites: A state of the art. Case Studies in Construction Materials, 17, e01189.

Canbaz M, Kara İ, Topçu İ (2021). Effect of high temperature on the mechanical behavior of cement-bonded wood composite produced with wood waste. Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics, 7(1), 42-48.

Chalioris CE, Thermou GE, Pantazopoulou SJ (2014). Behaviour of rehabilitated RC beams with self-compacting concrete jacketing–Analytical model and test results. Construction and Building Materials, 55, 257-273.

Ghobarah A, Ghorbel MN, Chidiac SE (2002). Upgrading torsional resistance of reinforced concrete beams using fiber-reinforced polymer. Journal of Composites for Construction, 6(4), 257-263.

Hashemi S (2011). Strengthening of concrete structures using carbon fibre reinforced polymers and cement-based adhesives. Ph.D. thesis, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Hosny A, Shaheen H, Abdelrahman A, Elafandy T (2006). Performance of reinforced concrete beams strengthened by hybrid FRP laminates. Cement and Concrete Composites, 28(10), 906-913.

Khan SU, Iqbal K, Munir A, Kim JK (2011). Quasi-static and impact fracture behaviors of CFRPs with nanoclay-filled epoxy matrix. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 42(3), 253-264.

Miruthun G, Vivek D, Remya PR, Elango KS, Saravanakumar R, Venkatraman S (2021). Experimental investigation on strengthening of reinforced concrete beams using GFRP laminates. Materials Today: Proceedings, 37, 2744-2748.

Obaidat YT, Heyden S, Dahlblom O, Abu-Farsakh G, Abdel-Jawad Y (2011). Retrofitting of reinforced concrete beams using composite laminates. Construction and Building Materials, 25(2), 591-597.

Oner G, Unal HY, Pekbey Y (2018). Mechanical performance of hybrid carbon/fiberglass composite laminates reinforced with nanoclay. Acta Physica Polonica A, 134, 164-167.

Rafiq A, Merah N, Boukhili R, Al-Qadhi M (2017). Impact resistance of hybrid glass fiber reinforced epoxy/nanoclay composite. Polymer Testing, 57, 1-11.

Raval SS, Dave UV (2013). Effectiveness of various methods of jacketing for RC beams. Procedia Engineering, 51, 230-239.

Sharma A, Joshi SC (2023). Enhancement in fatigue performance of FRP composites with various fillers: A review. Composite Structures, 116724.

Shehata IAEM, Shehata LCD, Santos EWF, Simoes MLF (2009). Strengthening of reinforced concrete beams in flexure by partial jacketing. Materials and Structures, 42, 495-504.

Şengel H, Kınık K, Erol H, Canbaz M (2022). Effect of waste steel tire wired concrete on the mechanical behavior under impact loading. Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics, 8(4), 150-158.

Talikoti RS, Kandekar SB (2019). Strength and durability study of concrete structures using aramid-fiber-reinforced polymer. Fibers, 7(2), 11.

Thermou GE, Papanikolaou VK, Lioupis C, Hajirasouliha I (2019). Steel-reinforced grout (SRG) strengthening of shear-critical RC beams. Construction and Building Materials, 216, 68-83.

TS EN 206 (2021). Concrete - Specification, performance, production and conformity. Turkish Standards Institute, TSE, Ankara, Türkiye.

TS EN 12350-2 (2010). Testing fresh concrete-Part 2: Slump test. Turkish Standards Institute, TSE, Ankara, Türkiye.

TS EN 12390-5 (2010). Testing hardened concrete-Part 5: Flexural strength of test specimens. Turkish Standards Institute, TSE, Ankara, Türkiye.

Turan E, Oltulu M, Yıldız İ, Çelik Z, Öner G (2023). The use of waste carbon/fiber glass reinforced laminates on the strengthening of concrete beams. 4. International Hasankeyf Scientific Research and Innovation Congress, Batman, Türkiye.

Ünal HY, Öner G, Pekbey Y (2017). Comparison of the experimental mechanical properties and DMA measurement of nanoclay hybrid composites. European Mechanical Science, 2(1), 31-36.

Xu Y, Van Hoa S (2008). Mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy/clay nanocomposites. Composites Science and Technology, 68(3-4), 854-861.


  • There are currently no refbacks.