Research Articles | Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics

Structural behavior of shear connectors embedded in different types of concrete

Adil Hadi Wardi, Gökhan Tunç, Khalil Ibraheem


Push-out tests are used to determine shear connectors’ properties where two small reinforced concrete walls are attached to the top and bottom flanges of an I-section through four shear studs located on both its flanges. In this study, the structural behavior of shear connectors was examined by testing a total of 36 push-out specimens. In these specimens, various test parameters were used. The types of shear connectors and their strengths, their connection types, and the strength of the concrete in which they were embedded were all investigated. Headed, L-shaped, and C-shaped studs were selected in this experimental study to represent different types of shear connectors. These shear connectors were assumed to be either ordinary or high strength steel-embedded in three different types of concrete: ordinary, high strength, and reactive powder concretes. In these tests, the shear connectors were connected through welding or epoxy bonding. The objective of this study was to investigate the structural behaviors of these different types of shear connectors by focusing on their shear force capacities and slip values. The test results indicate that the reactive powder concrete increased the mechanical properties of concrete as the concrete age increased. The specimens with C-shaped studs made of high-strength steel with welded studs embedded in normal weight, high strength and reactive powder concretes, generated the maximum shear resistance values.


push-out test; shear connectors; reactive powder concrete; high strength concrete


Adekola AO (1968). Partial interaction between elastically connected elements of a composite beam. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 4(11), 1125-1135.

Al-Shafi'i NTH (2013). Shear Behavior of Reactive Powder Concrete T-beams. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Al-Mustansiriya, Baghdad, Iraq.

Aziz KI (2005). Behavior of Multi-layer Composite Beams with Partial Interaction. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.

Bae BI, Chung JH, Choi HK, Jung HS, Choi CS (2018). Experimental study on the cyclic behavior of steel fiber reinforced high strength concrete columns and evaluation of shear strength. Engineering Structures, 157, 250-267.

Di J, Zou Y, Zhou X, Qin F, Peng X (2018). Push-out test of large perfobond connectors in steel–concrete joints of hybrid bridges. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 150, 415-429.

EN 1994 - Eurocode 4 (1994). Design of composite steel and concrete structures. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium.

Fallah S, Nematzadeh M (2017). Mechanical properties and durability of high-strength concrete containing macro-polymeric and polypropylene fibers with nano-silica and silica fume. Construction and Building Materials, 132, 170-187.

He S, Fang Z, Mosallam AS (2017). Push-out tests for perfobond strip connectors with UHPC grout in the joints of steel-concrete hybrid bridge girders. Engineering Structures, 135, 177-190.

Hirama C, Ishikawa T, Hisagi A (2017). Special Issue: Proceedings of Eurosteel 2017. In: Jönnsso J, editor. Shear strength of headed stud push‐out tests: comprehensive literature review focusing on slab type, failure mode, and large‐diameter headed stud. Wiley Online Library , 2013-2022.

Hmeed YM (2014). Behavior of reinforced concrete I-beams containing reactive powder concrete. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Al-Mustansiriya, Baghdad, Iraq.

Ismael MA (2013). Flexural Behavior of Reactive Powder Concrete Tee Beams. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Al-Mustansiriya, Baghdad, Iraq.

Newmark, NM, Siess, CP, Viest IM (1951). Tests and analysis of composite beams with incomplete interaction. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Stress Analysis, 9(1), 75-92.

Wandscher VF, Marchionatti AME, Otani A, Bergoli CD, Cesar PF, Valandro LF (2018). Effects of bonding area size, surface treatment and specimen configuration on the push out test for assessing bonding and stress distribution to Y-TZP. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 85, 315-321.

Wardi AHW (2019). Behavior of High Strength Shear Connectors Embedded in Concrete. M.Sc. thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Atılım University, Ankara, Turkey.


  • There are currently no refbacks.