Research Articles | Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics

Blast-induced ground motion effect on dynamic response of a cylindrical vertical water tank with piled raft foundation

Kemal Hacıefendioğlu, Gökhan Demir, Ahmet Can Altunışık


This paper studies to estimate the dynamic behavior of a demineralized water tank with a piled raft foundation system considering soil-pile-structure-fluid interaction to shock-ground motion. A three-dimensional finite element model of a coupled system is constituted in ANSYS software. Interaction between pile and soil is represented with the frictional contact element. The frictionless contact elements are utilized to model between the water and tank shell to allow for displacement of the free surface adjacent to the tank wall. Shell elements are used for the tank body and its vault. The dynamic analyses of the tank including soil-pile-structure-fluid interaction are presented by using shock response spectra. Ground shock acceleration time histories, generated by using a developed computer program based on Fortran programming language, produce shock response spectra. The effects of the different charge weights and distances from the charge center are examined in the analyses. Also, the effect of the water fill level in the tank and the number of piles is also investigated. The results of the research are presented with the directional displacements and equivalent stresses. It seen from the analyses that the dynamic responses of the tank increase with the charge weight, while decreasing with the charge center distance. Moreover, the water fill level and the number of piles extremely affect the displacement and stress values of the coupled interaction system.


blast ground motion; charge weight; shock spectrum analysis; soil-pile-structure-fluid interaction; water tank


Amin M, Ang AHS (1698). A non-stationary stochastic model of earthquake motion. Journal of Engineering Mechanics Division, ASCE, 94, 559–583.

ANSYS (2013). Workbench 2013. User’s manual, Ansys Incorporation, Ansys, Inc., Canonsburg, PA.

Blair DP, Miller DK, Armstrong LW (2007). The response of water storage tanks under blasting. EXPLO Conference 2007, Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Wollongong, New South Wales, 204.

Bolotin VV (1960). Statistical theory of the aseismic design of structures. Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Tokyo, 1365–1374.

Cheng X, Jing W (2017). Calculation models and stability of composite foundation treated with compaction piles. Geomechanics and Engineering, 13, 929–946.

Dieterman HA (1993). Liquid-structure-foundation interaction of slender water towers. Archive of Applied Mechanics, 63, 176–188.

Fiore A, Demartino C, Greco R, Rago C, Sulpizio C, Vanzi I (2018). Seismic performance of spherical liquid storage tanks: a case study. International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering, 10, 121–130.

Ha JG, Park HJ, Lee MK, Lee H, Kim D-S (2017). Seismic behavior of LNG storage tank considering soil-foundation-structure interaction with different foundation types. ICSMGE 2017 - 19th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 931–934.

Haciefendioǧlu K, Soyluk K, Birinci F (2012). Numerical investigation of stochastic response of an elevated water tank to random underground blast loading. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 26, 599–607.

Hahn SL (1996). Hilbert Transforms in Signal Processing. Artech House, Norwood, Maryland

Hao H, Wu C (2005). Numerical study of characteristics of underground blast induced surface ground motion and their effect on above-ground structures. Part II. Effects on structural responses. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 25, 39–53.

Higuchi S, Mori T, Matsuda T, Goto Y, Kutter BL, Akiyama H, Toki K, Kobayashi M (2000). Seismic performance of Lng storage tank foundations during the very large earthquake. 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (12WCEE2000), 1–8.

Jennings PC, Housner GW, Tsai NC (1969). Simulated earthquake motions for design purposes. In: Proceedings of the 4th World Conferences on Earthquake Engineering, 1, 145–160.

Kanai K (1957). Semi-empirical formula for the seismic characteristics of the ground. Bulletin of the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 35, 309–324.

Kim YK, Song HS (2017). A study on the cathodic protection design optimization of steel piles for LNG storage tanks by numerical analysis. Corrison Science and Technology, 16, 294–297.

Park H-J, Ha J-G, Kwon S-Y, Lee M-G, Kim D-S (2017). Investigation of the dynamic behaviour of a storage tank with different foundation types focusing on the soil-foundation-structure interactions using centrifuge model tests. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 46, 2301–2316.

Purnama AY, Rifa A, Hardiyatmo HC (2018). Fuel tank foundation improvement system on soft soil layer based on 3D numerical simulation. International Journal of Geomate, 14, 13–19.

Roberts DV (1961). Foundations for cylindrical storage tanks. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Paris, France, 785–788.

Ruifu Z, Dagen W, Xiaosong R (2011). Seismic analysis of a LNG storage tank isolated by a multiple friction pendulum system. Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 10, 253–262.

Ruiz P, Penzien J (1969). PSEQN: Artificial generation of earthquake accelerograms. National Technical Information Service, University of California, Berkeley.

Sahraeian SMS, Takemura J, Seki S (2018). An investigation about seismic behavior of piled raft foundation for oil storage tanks using centrifuge modelling. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 104, 210–227.

Singh PK, Roy MP (2010). Damage to surface structures due to blast vibration. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 47, 949–961.

Tajimi H (1960). A statistical method for determining the maximum response of a building structure during an earthquake. Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Tokyo and Kyoto, Japan 781–797.

Tuma J, Babiuch M, Koci P (2011). Calculation of a shock response spectra. Acta Montanistica Slovaca, 16, 66–73.

Wu C, Hao H (2005). Numerical study of characteristics of underground blast induced surface ground motion and their effect on above-ground structures. Part I. Ground motion characteristics. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 25, 27–38.

Wu C, Hao H (2007). Numerical simulation of structural response and damage to simultaneous ground shock and airblast loads. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 34,556–572.

Wu C, Hao H, Lu Y (2005). Dynamic response and damage analysis of masonry structures and masonry infilled RC frames to blast ground motion. Engineering Structures, 27,323–333.

Ximei Z, Haosong W, Feng FAN (2014). Multi-physics coupling method and applications of fluid-structure interaction on LNG storage tanks. 11th World Congress on Computational Mechanics (WCCM XI), 5th European Conference on Computational Mechanics (ECCM V), 6th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics (ECFD VI), 1–11.

Xinliang J, Xuecheng D (1992). Vibration analysis of liquid-storage tank-pile-soil under seismic excitation. Proceedings of the World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 1797–1800.

Yamashita K, Hashiba T, Ito H, Tanikawa T (2014). Performance of piled raft foundation subjected to strong seismic motion. Geotechnical Engineering Journal of the Seags & Agssa, 45, 33–39.

Zhang R, Zhang Z, Wang H (2018). Influence of soil-pile-structure-fluid interaction on seismic behavior of a liquid storage tank. Proceedings of GeoShanghai 2018 International Conference: Advances in Soil Dynamics and Foundation Engineering: Advances in Soil Dynamics and Foundation Engineering, Springer Singapore, 70–77.


  • There are currently no refbacks.